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A Brief Lecture on Perspectives in Abnormal Psychology by Dr. Brouk

 

Introduction to Abnormal Psychology and Life

Perspectives on Abnormal Psycholog

Risk and Prevention of Psychological Disorders

Diagnosis and Assessment of Psychological Disorders

Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Trauma-Related Disorders

Somatic Symptom and Dissociative Disorders

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

Eating Disorders

Substance-Related Disorders

Personality Disorders

Sexual Dysfunctions

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

Developmental and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

There are many psychological perspectives (i.e., theories, models or viewpoints) on the causes of psychological disorders. On this page, we will not only review the perspectives on the potential causes of mental illness, we will also consider the perspective on personality development and treatment goals (and techniques).

The perspectives include Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic theory, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow’s Humanistic view, B. F. Skinner’s Behavioral model, Aaron Beck’s Cognitive theory, and the Biological viewpoint.
 
 
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What Is Personality?

Personality is an individual’s unique overall pattern of behavior, cognitions and emotions.

  • Behavior – according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “Behavior is the way a person, animal, machine or substance acts, reacts or functions.” Behavior is observable and measurable.
  • Mental processes are activities related to the mind, and are NOT observable and measurable. They can be divided into two categories of cognitions and emotions.
    1. Cog·ni·tion (käg-'nish-n) is referred to “Conscious mental activities, the activities of thinking, understanding, learning, and remembering” (Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary, n.d.).
    2. Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity (Schacter, Gilbert, Wagner & Nock, 2015).
Examples of Behavior
  • Admire
  • Admit
  • Advise
  • Apologize
  • Applaud
  • Arrive
  • Ask
  • Bake
  • Blink
  • Blush
  • Clean
  • Cough
  • Crawl
  • Dance
  • Exercise
  • Help
  • Introduce
  • Invite
  • Joke
  • Laugh
  • Listen
  • Paint
  • Play
  • Pray
  • Relax
  • Salivate
  • Shop
  • Smile
  • Squeeze
  • Startle/Jump
  • Travel
  • Walk
Examples of Cognitions
  • Analyze
  • Attention
  • Compare
  • Judgment and decision
  • Know
  • Interpret
  • Language processing
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Problem solving
  • Reasoning
  • Think
  • Understanding
 
 
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions
Our unique qualities, characteristics and traits are composed of the combination of our thoughts, emotions and behavior.
638 Primary Personality Traits (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

Positive Traits
(234 = 37%)

  1. Accessible
  2. Active
  3. Adaptable
  4. Admirable
  5. Adventurous
  6. Agreeable
  7. Alert
  8. Allocentric
  9. Amiable
  10. Anticipative
  11. Appreciative
  12. Articulate
  13. Aspiring
  14. Athletic
  15. Attractive
  16. Balanced
  17. Benevolent
  18. Brilliant
  19. Calm
  20. Capable
  21. Captivating
  22. Caring
  23. Challenging
  24. Charismatic
  25. Charming
  26. Cheerful
  27. Clean
  28. Clear-headed
  29. Clever
  30. Colorful
  31. Companionly
  32. Compassionate
  33. Conciliatory
  34. Confident
  35. Conscientious
  36. Considerate
  37. Constant
  38. Contemplative
  39. Cooperative
  40. Courageous
  41. Courteous
  42. Creative
  43. Cultured
  44. Curious
  45. Daring
  46. Debonair
  47. Decent
  48. Decisive
  49. Dedicated
  50. Deep
  51. Dignified
  52. Directed
  53. Disciplined
  54. Discreet
  55. Dramatic
  56. Dutiful
  57. Dynamic
  58. Earnest
  59. Ebullient
  60. Educated
  61. Efficient
  62. Elegant
  63. Eloquent
  64. Empathetic
  65. Energetic
  66. Enthusiastic
  67. Esthetic
  68. Exciting
  69. Extraordinary
  70. Fair
  71. Faithful
  72. Farsighted
  73. Felicific
  74. Firm
  75. Flexible
  76. Focused
  77. Forceful
  78. Forgiving
  79. Forthright
  80. Freethinking
  81. Friendly
  82. Fun loving
  83. Gallant
  84. Generous
  85. Gentle
  86. Genuine
  87. Good-natured
  88. Gracious
  89. Hardworking
  90. Healthy
  91. Hearty
  92. Helpful
  93. Heroic
  94. High-minded
  95. Honest
  96. Honorable
  97. Humble
  98. Humorous
  99. Idealistic
  100. Imaginative
  101. Impressive
  102. Incisive
  103. Incorruptible
  104. Independent
  105. Individualistic
  106. Innovative
  107. Inoffensive
  108. Insightful
  109. Insouciant
  110. Intelligent
  111. Intuitive
  112. Invulnerable
  113. Kind
  114. Knowledge
  115. Leaderly
  116. Leisurely
  117. Liberal

Positive Traits
(234 = 37%)

  1. Logical
  2. Lovable
  3. Loyal
  4. Lyrical
  5. Magnanimous
  6. Many-sided
  7. Masculine (Manly)
  8. Mature
  9. Methodical
  10. Meticulous
  11. Moderate
  12. Modest
  13. Multi-leveled
  14. Neat
  15. Non-authoritarian
  16. Objective
  17. Observant
  18. Open
  19. Optimistic
  20. Orderly
  21. Organized
  22. Original
  23. Painstaking
  24. Passionate
  25. Patient
  26. Patriotic
  27. Peaceful
  28. Perceptive
  29. Perfectionist
  30. Personable
  31. Persuasive
  32. Planful
  33. Playful
  34. Polished
  35. Popular
  36. Practical
  37. Precise
  38. Principled
  39. Profound
  40. Protean
  41. Protective
  42. Providential
  43. Prudent
  44. Punctual
  45. Purposeful
  46. Rational
  47. Realistic
  48. Reflective
  49. Relaxed
  50. Reliable
  51. Resourceful
  52. Respectful
  53. Responsible
  54. Responsive
  55. Reverential
  56. Romantic
  57. Rustic
  58. Sage
  59. Sane
  60. Scholarly
  61. Scrupulous
  62. Secure
  63. Selfless
  64. Self-critical
  65. Self-defacing
  66. Self-denying
  67. Self-reliant
  68. Self-sufficient
  69. Sensitive
  70. Sentimental
  71. Seraphic
  72. Serious
  73. Sexy
  74. Sharing
  75. Shrewd
  76. Simple
  77. Skillful
  78. Sober
  79. Sociable
  80. Solid
  81. Sophisticated
  82. Spontaneous
  83. Sporting
  84. Stable
  85. Steadfast
  86. Steady
  87. Stoic
  88. Strong
  89. Studious
  90. Suave
  91. Subtle
  92. Sweet
  93. Sympathetic
  94. Systematic
  95. Tasteful
  96. Teacherly
  97. Thorough
  98. Tidy
  99. Tolerant
  100. Tractable
  101. Trusting
  102. Uncomplaining
  103. Understanding
  104. Undogmatic
  105. Unfoolable
  106. Upright
  107. Urbane
  108. Venturesome
  109. Vivacious
  110. Warm
  111. Well-bred
  112. Well-read
  113. Well-rounded
  114. Winning
  115. Wise
  116. Witty
  117. Youthful

Neutral Traits
(292 = 18%)

  1. Absentminded
  2. Aggressive
  3. Ambitious
  4. Amusing
  5. Artful
  6. Ascetic
  7. Authoritarian
  8. Big thinking
  9. Boyish
  10. Breezy
  11. Businesslike
  12. Busy
  13. Casual
  14. Cerebral
  15. Chummy
  16. Circumspect
  17. Competitive
  18. Complex
  19. Confidential
  20. Conservative
  21. Contradictory
  22. Crisp
  23. Cute
  24. Deceptive
  25. Determined
  26. Dominating
  27. Dreamy
  28. Driving
  29. Droll
  30. Dry
  31. Earthy
  32. Effeminate
  33. Emotional
  34. Enigmatic
  35. Experimental
  36. Familial
  37. Folksy
  38. Formal
  39. Freewheeling
  40. Frugal
  41. Glamorous
  42. Guileless
  43. High-spirited
  44. Hurried
  45. Hypnotic
  46. Iconoclastic
  47. Idiosyncratic
  48. Impassive
  49. Impersonal
  50. Impressionable
  51. Intense
  52. Invisible
  53. Irreligious
  54. Irreverent
  55. Maternal
  56. Mellow
  57. Modern
  58. Moralistic
  59. Mystical
  60. Neutral
  61. Noncommittal
  62. Noncompetitive
  63. Obedient
  64. Old-fashioned
  65. Ordinary
  66. Outspoken
  67. Paternalistic
  68. Physical
  69. Placid
  70. Political
  71. Predictable
  72. Preoccupied
  73. Private
  74. Progressive
  75. Proud
  76. Pure
  77. Questioning
  78. Quiet
  79. Religious
  80. Reserved
  81. Restrained
  82. Retiring
  83. Sarcastic
  84. Self-conscious
  85. Sensual
  86. Skeptical
  87. Smooth
  88. Soft
  89. Solemn
  90. Solitary
  91. Stern
  92. Stolid/Dull
  93. Strict
  94. Stubborn
  95. Stylish
  96. Subjective
  97. Surprising
  98. Soft
  99. Tough
  100. Unaggressive
  101. Unambitious
  102. Unceremonious
  103. Unchanging
  104. Undemanding
  105. Unfathomable
  106. Unhurried
  107. Uninhibited
  108. Unpatriotic
  109. Unpredictable
  110. Unreligious
  111. Unsentimental
  112. Whimsical

Negative Traits
(292 = 46%)

  1. Abrasive
  2. Abrupt
  3. Agonizing
  4. Aimless
  5. Airy
  6. Aloof
  7. Amoral
  8. Angry
  9. Anxious
  10. Apathetic
  11. Arbitrary
  12. Argumentative
  13. Arrogant
  14. Artificial
  15. Asocial
  16. Assertive
  17. Astigmatic
  18. Barbaric
  19. Bewildered
  20. Bizarre
  21. Bland
  22. Blunt
  23. Boisterous
  24. Brittle
  25. Brutal
  26. Calculating
  27. Callous
  28. Cantankerous
  29. Careless
  30. Cautious
  31. Charmless
  32. Childish
  33. Clumsy
  34. Coarse/Rough
  35. Cold
  36. Colorless
  37. Complacent
  38. Complaintive
  39. Compulsive
  40. Conceited
  41. Condemnatory
  42. Conformist
  43. Confused
  44. Contemptible
  45. Conventional
  46. Cowardly
  47. Crafty
  48. Crass
  49. Crazy
  50. Criminal
  51. Critical
  52. Crude
  53. Cruel
  54. Cynical
  55. Decadent
  56. Deceitful
  57. Delicate
  58. Demanding
  59. Dependent
  60. Desperate
  61. Destructive
  62. Devious
  63. Difficult
  64. Dirty
  65. Disconcerting
  66. Discontented
  67. Discouraging
  68. Discourteous
  69. Dishonest
  70. Disloyal
  71. Disobedient
  72. Disorderly
  73. Disorganized
  74. Disputatious
  75. Disrespectful
  76. Disruptive
  77. Dissolute
  78. Dissonant
  79. Distractible
  80. Disturbing
  81. Dogmatic
  82. Domineering
  83. Dull
  84. Easily Discouraged
  85. Egocentric
  86. Enervated
  87. Envious
  88. Erratic
  89. Escapist
  90. Excitable
  91. Expedient
  92. Extravagant
  93. Extreme
  94. Faithless
  95. False
  96. Fanatical
  97. Fanciful

Negative Traits
(292 = 46%)

  1. Fatalistic
  2. Fawning
  3. Fearful
  4. Fickle
  5. Fiery
  6. Fixed
  7. Flamboyant
  8. Foolish
  9. Forgetful
  10. Fraudulent
  11. Frightening
  12. Frivolous
  13. Gloomy
  14. Graceless
  15. Grand
  16. Greedy
  17. Grim
  18. Gullible
  19. Hateful
  20. Haughty
  21. Hedonistic
  22. Hesitant
  23. Hidebound
  24. High-handed
  25. Hostile
  26. Ignorant
  27. Imitative
  28. Impatient
  29. Impractical
  30. Imprudent
  31. Impulsive
  32. Inconsiderate
  33. Incurious
  34. Indecisive
  35. Indulgent
  36. Inert
  37. Inhibited
  38. Insecure
  39. Insensitive
  40. Insincere
  41. Insulting
  42. Intolerant
  43. Irascible
  44. Irrational
  45. Irresponsible
  46. Irritable
  47. Lazy
  48. Libidinous
  49. Loquacious
  50. Malicious
  51. Mannered
  52. Manner less
  53. Mawkish
  54. Mealy-mouthed
  55. Mechanical
  56. Meddlesome
  57. Melancholic
  58. Meretricious
  59. Messy
  60. Miserable
  61. Miserly
  62. Misguided
  63. Mistaken
  64. Money-minded
  65. Monstrous
  66. Moody
  67. Morbid
  68. Muddle-headed
  69. Naive
  70. Narcissistic
  71. Narrow
  72. Narrow-minded
  73. Natty
  74. Negativistic
  75. Neglectful
  76. Neurotic
  77. Nihilistic
  78. Obnoxious
  79. Obsessive
  80. Obvious
  81. Odd
  82. Offhand
  83. One-dimensional
  84. One-sided
  85. Opinionated
  86. Opportunistic
  87. Oppressed
  88. Outrageous
  89. Over imaginative
  90. Paranoid
  91. Passive
  92. Pedantic
  93. Perverse
  94. Petty
  95. Pharisaical
  96. Phlegmatic
  97. Plodding

Negative Traits
(292 = 46%)

  1. Pompous
  2. Possessive
  3. Power-hungry
  4. Predatory
  5. Prejudiced
  6. Presumptuous
  7. Pretentious
  8. Prim
  9. Procrastinating
  10. Profligate
  11. Provocative
  12. Pugnacious
  13. Puritanical
  14. Quirky
  15. Reactionary
  16. Reactive
  17. Regimental
  18. Regretful
  19. Repentant
  20. Repressed
  21. Resentful
  22. Ridiculous
  23. Rigid
  24. Ritualistic
  25. Rowdy
  26. Ruined
  27. Sadistic
  28. Sanctimonious
  29. Scheming
  30. Scornful
  31. Secretive
  32. Sedentary
  33. Selfish
  34. Self-indulgent
  35. Shallow
  36. Shortsighted
  37. Shy
  38. Silly
  39. Single-minded
  40. Sloppy
  41. Slow
  42. Sly
  43. Small-thinking
  44. Softheaded
  45. Sordid
  46. Steely
  47. Stiff
  48. Strong-willed
  49. Stupid
  50. Submissive
  51. Superficial
  52. Superstitious
  53. Suspicious
  54. Tactless
  55. Tasteless
  56. Tense
  57. Thievish
  58. Thoughtless
  59. Timid
  60. Transparent
  61. Treacherous
  62. Trendy
  63. Troublesome
  64. Unappreciative
  65. Uncaring
  66. Uncharitable
  67. Unconvincing
  68. Uncooperative
  69. Uncreative
  70. Uncritical
  71. Unctuous
  72. Undisciplined
  73. Unfriendly
  74. Ungrateful
  75. Unhealthy
  76. Unimaginative
  77. Unimpressive
  78. Unlovable
  79. Unpolished
  80. Unprincipled
  81. Unrealistic
  82. Unreflective
  83. Unreliable
  84. Unrestrained
  85. Unself-critical
  86. Unstable
  87. Vacuous
  88. Vague
  89. Venal
  90. Venomous
  91. Vindictive
  92. Vulnerable
  93. Weak
  94. Weak-willed
  95. Well-meaning
  96. Willful
  97. Wishful
  98. Zany
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How Do We Assess Unique Personality?
 
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Personality Development, Causes of Psychological Disorders and Treatment Goals and Techniques

 

Freud's Psychodynamic Perspective on Personality Development

 
Freud
Sigmund Freud
According to Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic perspective, personality develops based on one’s childhood experiences that are mainly stored at the unconscious level. His theory includes: five stages of psychosexual development, three levels of consciousness, three structures of personality, and defense mechanisms; used by the ego to manage or avoid anxiety.
 

Freud theorized that personality develops during five developmental stages. Each stage is characterized by a need that is sexual in nature, and associated with a specific body part, referred to as the “erogenous zone”. It is the responsibility of parents to properly fulfill the needs of their child without negligence or overindulgence. Particularly, during the first three stages of oral, anal, and phallic, which Freud believed to be a significant developmental period. Failure to adequately meet the needs of the child will result in fixation, which implies getting stuck (and inability to move on to the next stage). An adult who is fixated will experience struggles associated with the need(s) of that stage.

Psychosexual Stages of Development
  1. Oral Stage (Birth - 18 months) – the erogenous zone is the mouth, and the baby's needs involve nurturance. Inadequate fulfillment of these needs will result in oral fixation and an adult personality with dependency issues such as: depression, eating disorders, addiction, chewing gum, verbal hostility and sarcasm.
  2. Anal Stage (between 2 and 3 years of age) – the erogenous zone is the anus, and the needs surround control and toilet training. Inadequate fulfillment of this stage will result in anal fixation and an adult personality with control and responsibility issues. According to Freud, fixation in this stage can result in two distinct personalities:

    a. Anal-Expulsive Personality - who may exhibit messiness, irresponsibility and wastefulness.
    b. Anal-Retentive Personality - who may be obsessively orderly, cautious and thrifty.

  3. Phallic Stage (between 3 and 5 years of age) – the erogenous zone is the genital region, and the needs surround the realization of gender differences and conflicting feelings of love for the opposite sex parent. Inadequate fulfillment of this stage will result in phallic fixation and an adult personality with sexual and gender issues.
  4. Latency Stage (between 5 and 13 years of age) – there are no erogenous zones and the needs surround academic and social matters.
  5. Genital Stage (after 13 years of age) – if the adolescent has successfully completed the first three stages properly, at this stage, he/she will develop healthy and satisfying sexual and interpersonal relationships.

Three Level of Consciousness

Freud believed that our awareness is divided into three categories:

  1. Consciousness – this level contains memories, ideas and images that are present.

  2. Precociousness – this level contains memories, ideas and images that are not present, but could easily become available.

  3. Unconsciousness – this level contains memories, ideas and images that are not present, and they are difficult to access. According to Freud, our adult personalities are mostly driven and motivated by experiences stored at this level.

Three Structures of Personality

Freud’s three structures of personality are:

  1. The Id - operates based on the “pleasure principle” and has no use for consequences.

  2. The Superego - operates based on the “idealistic/moralistic principle” and expects perfection. It is our “conscience” and it is constantly in conflict with the id.

  3. The Ego - operates based on the “reality principle” and the existing societal demands. It is the mediator between the pleasure seeking id and the righteous superego, that are in perpetual intrapsychic conflict.

  Id, Ego and Superego
 
   

Defense Mechanisms

Defense mechanisms are the ego’s unconscious effort to cope or avoid anxiety by distorting reality. They occur when the ego cannot manage id’s unacceptable impulses and/or environmental demands. Examples of defense mechanisms are:

  1. Repression - refers to the blockage of information from reaching awareness.

  2. Projection - refers to shifting one’s own unacceptable thoughts or behavior on to others.

  3. Rationalization - is an effort to justify an irrational behavior or thought into something that is logical and sensible.

  4. Identification - refers to sympathizing with thoughts and behavior of someone who does not deserve it.

  5. Displacement - refers to placing unacceptable thoughts and behavior on less threatening sources, rather than the actual and appropriate target.

Freud's Psychodynamic Perspective on
the Causes for Psychological Disorders and Treatment Goals and Techniques

According to Freud, psychological disorders (i.e., maladjustments, inadequacies) are caused by unconscious and unresolved childhood conflicts.

To treat psychological maladjustments, psychoanalysts aim to uncover the unconscious childhood conflicts of the individual through the following techniques:

  • Free association
  • Dream analysis
  • Analysis of transference
  • Analysis of resistance
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Neo Freudian Psychoanalytic Theorists (Alfred Adler and Carl Jung)
 
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Jungian Analytic Theory

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist who studies with Freud. However, due to their theoretical disagreements (particularly on the concepts of sexuality and unconsciousness), they broke their relationship and Jung found the analytic theory.

Although Jung believed in the existence and importance of the unconsciousness, his view was much more positive. He saw the unconsciousness as a site for imagination and creativity which included personal unconscious and collective unconscious. Personal unconscious material may be available or inaccessible (blocked). The collective unconscious maintains information passed on from generation to generation through human species.

 
Alfred Adler
Alfred Adler

Adler’s Individual Psychology

Alfred Adler was a Viennese ophthalmologist (medical doctor) who joined Freud’s study circle. However, similar to Jung, he separated from Freud due to ideological differences.

Adler’s theory emphasized the role of social importance on fostering a sense of belonging and reaching superiority. As the first community psychologist, he viewed social involvement to advance civility and respect as an individualistic need.

       
 
 
         
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The Behavioral Perspective on Personality Development

Behaviorists
Ivan Pavlov
John B. Watson
B. F. Skinner

As the founder of the behavioral perspective in Psychology, John B. Watson emphasized studying observable and measurable behavior. According to this perspective, personality is composed of consistent behavioral patterns that are learned through interaction with the environment. We learn behavior through classical and operant conditioning.

  1. Skinner’s operant conditioning refers to a process where behaviors that are reinforced are more likely to re-occur than behaviors that are punished or ignored.
     

The Behavioral Perspective on
the Causes for Psychological Disorders and Treatment Goals and Techniques

According to the behavioral perspective, psychological disorders (behavioral maladjustments) are learned. That is, unhealthy behavior is learned the same way as healthy behavior through observation, operant coditioning and classical conditioning.

To treat psychological disorders, the behavioral therapist assists the client to modify his or her unhealthy behavior.

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The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality Development

In his social cognitive theory, Albert Bandura agreed with the behavioral perspective that personality is shaped through learning in the environment. However, his theory differed on three points:

  1. Behavior is learned through observation and imitation.

  2. Behavior is the result of cognitive processes in response to the learning (observation and imitation) in the environment.

  3. Behavior is affected and motivated by self-efficacy beliefs, which refers to the individual’s sense of competence and confidence. Furthermore, as proactive agents through social interaction, human beings cause change in not only themselves, but also their environment.

   
 
 
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The Humanistic Perspective on Personality Development

Humanistic Psychologists.jpg
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
Rollo May

Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May pioneered the humanistic perspective. As positive and growth theorists, they believed in free will, the uniqueness of human beings and his/her inherent tendency and need to reach their highest potential.

  • According to Rogers, given an environment that provides unconditional positive regard and a few conditions of self-worth, the individual with have a healthy personality and is able to reach his highest potential.

  • Maslow maintained that a healthy and self-actualized personality requires the fulfillment of basic biological and psychosocial needs that are organized in a hierarchy. The hierarchy begins with the survival needs (such as food and water) and moves toward more complex and advanced psychosocial needs such as love and esteem.

 
 

The Humanistic Perspective on
the Causes for Psychological Disorders and Treatment Goals and Techniques

The humanistic perspective assumes that psychological disorders are caused by incongruence (differences) between the real self (who the person really is with all of his or her strengths and weaknesses) and the ideal self (who the person wants to be). To assist the client in finding congruency (balance) between the real self and the ideal self, the humanistic therapist must provide a “growth” environment, which has four characteristics. These four characteristics are:

  • Unconditional positive regard (total acceptance no matter what)
  • Empathy (seeing the world from the client’s perspective)
  • Authenticity (genuineness and sincerity)
  • Reflection (mirroring the client’s thoughts and feelings)
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The Cognitive Perspective on Personality Development
Cognitive Psychologists.jpg
Max Werthertimer
Ulric (Dick) Neisser
Aaron Beck
Albert Ellis
Martin Seligman

According to the cognitive perspective, cognitive processes such as attitude, thoughts, beliefs, analysis, attention, memory, perception, reasoning, judgement and interpretation affect behavior, and thus personality. These processes operate at the conscious level.

 

The Cognitive Perspective on the Causes for Psychological Disorders and
Treatment Goals and Techniques

According to the cognitive perspective, psychological disorders (maladjustments) are caused by illogical and distorted cognitions. To treat psychological challenges, the therapist assists the individual to restructure and modify his or her thinking and perception.

 
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The Biological Perspective on Personality Development

According to the biologica; model, an individual’s personality (his/her unique overall pattern of behavior, cognitions and emotions) is influenced by his/her biology (brain, biochemistry and genetics).

The Biological Perspective on the Causes for Psychological Disorders and
Treatment Goals and Techniques

According to the Biological Model, psychological challenges are caused by some form of faulty biology such as: (1) genetic predisposition, (2) biochemical imbalance, and (3) brain abnormality and dysfunction. To treat psychological maladjustments, a biologically oriented therapist tries to correct the faulty biology and may use medication, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and psychosurgery.

 
 
   
 
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Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator

Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator By entering your zip code at findtreatment.samhsa.gov, you can quickly find alcohol and drug abuse treatment or mental health treatment facilities in your area. This service is courtesy of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) which works to "to improve the quality and availability of substance abuse prevention, alcohol and drug addiction treatment, and mental health services." (SAMHSA)

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